Guidelines List

Full List of Design Guidelines of Multi-touch Interfaces for Elders

Number Title Category
G1 Tap gestures (when applied to well recognized objects) are the easiest ones to understand and remember. Multi-Touch Interaction
G2 Tapping on the background outside of an object should be avoided. Multi-Touch Interaction

Do not overload the same object with actions performed by a tap and by a drag gesture.

Multi-Touch Interaction
G4 In drag gestures, the “natural” version should be implemented: the object should stay where it has been left rather than flying back to its initial position. Multi-Touch Interaction
G5 Iconic gestures are very engaging. Multi-Touch Interaction
G6 Due to large variability in touch performance by elderly people (due to age, health-related issue, etc.) the setting of the time parameters of gestures is of paramount importance, to promote a better adaptation. Multi-Touch Interaction
G7 Animations alone are not effective in signaling synchronous and asynchronous events on the interfaces and should be accompanied by redundant information in other modalities. Multi-Touch Interaction
G8 Ensure the user can easily make interface elements larger (adjustable). Target Design
G9 Focus on learnability and memorability. Multi-Touch Interaction
G10 Support user in reducing clutter. Multi-Touch Interaction
G11 Address special aspects associated with tabletop user interfaces such as the use of large elements and use of this interface type as social spaces. Multi-Touch Interaction
G12 Touch interaction is manageable and preferred. Multi-Touch Interaction
G13 Provide cues for interaction for initial learning and sub- sequent use of the technology. Multi-Touch Interaction
G14 The rate at which virtual objects adjust based on subtle hand movements, particularly during resizing and rotating actions, needs to be slowed down. Multi-Touch Interaction
G15 Avoid fine motor input, the interface should allow whole-handed and multi-finger input. Multi-Touch Interaction
G16 Positioning at the surface is critical, the user should to achieve with easiness the interface corners. Multi-Touch Interaction
G17 Consider a tilted or adjustable display, can ease the interface visualization. Multi-Touch Interaction
G18 Display size may be intimidating. Multi-Touch Interaction
G19 Create social situations that let participants clarify doubts. Interface Testing
G20 Do not standardize your approach to the elders. Interface Testing
G21 Inform the older adult of the goal of the project beforehand. Interface Testing
G22 Explain some of the test details after the test is finished. Interface Testing
G23 Don’t forget to say thanks. Interface Testing
G24 Don’t say the word computer on the first approach. Interface Testing
G25 Let them know the plan beforehand. Interface Testing
G26 Do not ask them to move. Interface Testing
G27 Some usability tests can be performed while in a group. Interface Testing
G28 Isolate what you want to test. Interface Testing
G29 Talk to privileged informers. Interface Testing
G30 Relate the tests to the participants’ world. Interface Testing
G31 Role-play helps participants performing tests that do not relate to their reality. Interface Testing
G32 Keep the test short and make use of breaks. Interface Testing
G33 Make it clear that they are not being tested. Interface Testing
G34 Respect the opinions of the test participants. Interface Testing
G35 Listen to the patient’s historical narratives. Interface Testing
G36 Use simple language. Interface Testing
G37 Adjust your volume appropriately and repeat and paraphrase if necessary. Interface Testing
G38 Give test participants’ time to think. Interface Testing
G39 Do not use elder’s speak. Interface Testing
G40 Natural affordances of screens are needed. Multi-Touch Interaction
G41 There is lack of tactile user feedback. User Feedback and Support
G42 It is necessary that interface elements do not are covered by fingers, hands or arms during the interaction. Multi-Touch Interaction
G43 Different physical properties have to be considered while designing the interface (e.g. size of buttons). Target Design
G44 Accessibility issues should be taken into account, for example giving tools to allow the use by blind people. User Feedback and Support
G45 Gestures in use are increasingly becoming inconsistent across different manufacturers, it is necessary to define a standard gestures. Multi-Touch Interaction
G46 The lack of tactile user feedback also affects the user experience of data input on multi-touch interfaces. User Feedback and Support
G47 Identification of co-located users, who interact simultaneously need to be more explored. Multi-Touch Interaction
G48 Be prepared for older adults that refuse to learn. User Cognitive Design
G49 Give them time to learn. User Cognitive Design
G50 Plan carefully the prices of products and services for the user. User Feedback and Support
G51 Don’t forget older adults wear glasses. Interface Testing
G52 Make use of behaviors developed by older adults to cope with memory loss. User Cognitive Design
G53 Don’t forget older adults did not grow up using computers, “the odds are stacked against them”. User Cognitive Design
G54 Use simple phrasing. Content Layout Design
G55 Present a single message in a single screen. Content Layout Design
G56 Reduce the demand on working memory by supporting recognition rather than recall and provide fewer choices to the user. User Cognitive Design
G57 Avoid irrelevant information. Content Layout Design
G58 Use a very large font type. Text Design
G59 Use an easy to read font family. Text Design
G60 Allow the older adult to adjust the size of the font in the user interface. Text Design
G61 Use left-aligned text. Text Design
G62 Avoid moving text and other animations. Text Design
G63 Give them time to read. Older adults usually read more slowly (than younger adults). User Cognitive Design
G64 Avoid forcing users to read at very close distances. User Cognitive Design

Concentrate information on the center of the screen.

Content Layout Design
G66 Remove unnecessary information from the interface. Content Layout Design
G67 Remove user interface elements calling attention as soon as they are not needed. Content Layout Design
G68 Use icons along with labels. Icons should be simple and meaningful; text incorporated with the icon when possible. Graphics
G69 Avoid the use of scroll. Content Layout Design
G70 Maintain consistency in the user interface. Screen layout, navigation and terminology used should be simple, clear and consistent. Content Layout Design
G71 Do not use blinking elements or other elements that capture attention. Graphics should be relevant and not for decoration. Minimal to no animation should be present. Graphics
G72 Provide large targets. Target Design
G73 Use high contrast between the elements of the user interface. A high contrast between the foreground and background should exist. Graphics
G74 Provide a cursor showing clearly the selected target. It should be obvious to older adults what can be selected and what cannot. Target Design
G75 Enable older adults to adjust the volume at their will. Audio
G76 Allow users to replay auditory messages. Audio
G77 Increase duration of sound signals. Audio
G78 Use male voices for delivering auditory information. Audio
G79 Do not use synthetic speech unless it resembles natural speech correctly. Audio
G80 Create speech that is redundant, semantically well structured. Audio
G81 Read speech at a consistent and reasonable pace. Audio
G82 Control the background noise. Audio
G83 Remove sound distractions. Audio
G84 Provide a good navigation. Navigation and Errors
G85 Show the current location clearly. Navigation and Errors
G86 Design error messages that make it clear that the user is not the cause of the error. Navigation and Errors
G87 Make it easy for user to correct input errors. Navigation and Errors
G88 Use only one type of input device. User Feedback and Support
G89 Use a big button size. Target Design
G90 Use the full screen for the program. Content Layout Design
G91 Use colors with a good contrast. Colors should be used conservatively. Graphics
G92 Use supporting peripherals if needed. User Feedback and Support
G93 Use a suitable text size Text Design
G94 Interfaces should encourage users to approach from S, SE, or E to the primary target. Multi-Touch Interaction
G95 Interfaces should take the trade-off between the speed and accuracy into account: Simultaneous can be faster but more error-prone while Sequential is slower but less error-prone. Multi-Touch Interaction
G96 Interfaces can use either the index finger (index-anchored) or the thumb (thumb-anchored) to select the primary target; there are no performance differences. Multi-Touch Interaction
G97 Interfaces should avoid placing the secondary target directly above the primary target for index-anchored selections, and below the primary target for thumb-anchored selections. Multi-Touch Interaction
G98 Interfaces should avoid placing the secondary target outside of a 100mm radius from the primary target, unless anchoring with thumb. Multi-Touch Interaction
G99 Interfaces should avoid placing the secondary target within 50mm of the center of the primary target for thumb-anchored selections. Multi-Touch Interaction
G100 Avoid repetitive actions. Navigation and Errors
G101 Extra and bolder navigation cues should be provided. Navigation and Errors
G102 Do not have a deep hierarchy and group information into meaningful categories. Navigation and Errors
G103 Provide only one open window e.g. pop up or multiple overlapping windows should be avoided. Content Layout Design
G104 Language should be simple, clear, uses the active voice and uses positive phrasing. Content Layout Design
G105 Blue and yellow or red and green tones should be avoided.Warm colors are the most suitable. Graphics

Background screens should not be pure white or change rapidly in brightness between screens.

G107 The text should be double spacing between the lines. Text Design
G108 Main body of the text should be in sentence case and not all capital letters. Text Design
G109 Use medium or bold face type e.g. sans serif type font i.e. Helvetica, Arial. Avoid other fancy font types. Text Design
G110 Error messages should be simple and easy to follow. Navigation and Errors
G111 Avoid some gestures in the multi-touch interaction. Multi-Touch Interaction
G112 Avoid note taking or scribble functions. Multi-Touch Interaction
G113 Minimize the number of steps it takes to reach a given screen. Navigation and Errors


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